Means Of Transport and Communications
In ancient times,people travelled on foot.Then,they invented the Wheel.It led to the development of carts.People began using horse-carts and bullock-carts to ho from one place to another.These were,however,very slow means of transport.

Slow means of transport are now being replaced by faster ones.We use buses,cars,scooters,trains,ships and aeroplanes.They help us cover distances much faster than before.

India has a well-developed network of roads,railways,airways,and waterways.

1.An efficient and developed transport system maintains cultural coherence,socioeconomic development and sovereignty of the country.

2.It helps people to make a move from one place to another and thus enhances interaction among people and human settlement.

3.It helps better understanding of people of other nations and cultural and thereby promotes emotional integration.

4.It helps in the development of agricultural sector through effective distribution of food grains and goods from the producing areas to the marketing centres without interruption.

5.It helps in the development of mining and industry through the effective distribution of raw materials from different centres to the sites of industrial units and the distribution of manufactured goods from factory sites to marketing centres.

6.It promotes feasible and compatible marketing system and encourages internal and international trade.

7.It reduces the distance between villages,regions and even communities.

8.It helps the government during external aggression,internal disturbances and natural calamities like floods,famines,droughts etc.

9.It helps of the above advantages,the transport and communications are regarded as the "Lifelines"of a country.


Railways are the 'lifeline' of our country.They connect almost all towns and cities in India.Railways carry 500 crore people and over 45 crore tonnes of goods every year,from one part of the country to another.

The total length of railways in India is about 65,000kilometres.Our railway network is the second largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world.

At the time of Independence,trains were run by steam engines.These have now been replaced by diesel and electric engines.This has increased the speed of trains.Trains such as the Rajdhani Express and the Shatabdi Express run at a speed of over 140 Kilometres per over.

Metro trains run in kolkata and Delhi.They run either no elevated tracks or under the ground.Soon,Mumbai and Banglore would also have a metro train network.

1. Central Railway mumbai
2. Eastern Railway Kolkatta
3. Northern Railway New delhi
4. Nothern-Eastern Railway Gorakhpur
5. Nothern-East Frontier Railway Maligaon(Gauhati)
6. Southern Railway Chennai
7. Southern -Central Railway Secundrabad
8. Southern -Eastern Railway Kolkatta
9. Western Railway Mumbai(Churchgate)
10. North-Central Railway Allahabad
11. East-Central Railway Hazipur(Bihar)
12. North-Western Railway Jaipur
13. East-Coast Railway Bhubaneswar
14. South-West Railway Banglore
15. West Central Railway Jabalpur

Source:-By pushpa jain


An aeroplane is the fastest means of transport.All important cities in India are connected by air.
Air transport is the costilier but the fastest mode of modern transport.

Indian Airlines Limited provides domestic air services whereas Air India Limited provides international air services.

IAAI:-Manage six international air port at Mumbai,kolkata,Delhi,Chennai,Thirvanantapuram and Hyderabad.

Aeroplanes transport people and goods,especially perishable goods such as fresh fruits,flowers and vegetables,to far-off places.They also carry mail.

A helicaptor is a very useful means of air transport.They are used to drop food and medicines during floods,droughts,famines,earthquakes,epidemics and wars.They are also used to rescue people during times of natural disasters.

1.Mumbai AirportToday,there are government as well as private airlines operating in our country.Private airlines operating in our country.Private airlines such as jet Airways,kingfisher Airlines,Indigo and Spice jet offer tickets at low prices.So, air travel has now become affordable.

International Airports(IAAI)International Airports Authority Of India
2.Kolkota Airport
3.Delhi Airport
4.Chennai Airport
5.Hyderabad Airport
6.Thiruvanantapuram Airport

Obstacles in Airtransport
1.Bad weather and poor visibility affect the air transport.
2.It is costly and all people cannot afford to use facility.

Note:-Some private airlines in India offer air tickets for only rs.1.However,there are very few of such tickets.Also,these tickets have to be booked much in advance.


Water Ways

Water transport is one of the cheapest means of transport.It is most suitable for transporting heavy and buldy goods.

Passanger ships carry people.Cargo ships transport goods.Petroleum,Oil,ets.are carried by tanker ships.

India has a long coastline.There are 11 major and over 140 minor ports along this coastline.More than 15000 ships come to these ports every year.Mumbai is the largest port.

Water ways are 2 types:-
Inland waterways and Oceanic transport.

a)The Ganges and the Brahmaputra river systems are the potential sources of inland water navigation in the country.

b)Posts,telegraph,telephone,wireless,fax and electronic mail provide the network of communications in the country.

Major Sources of Waterways in the country:-

1.The Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in the north,
2.The lower courses of the Mahanandi,the Krishna and the Godavari on the east coast,
3.The Narmada,the Tapati,the Zuari,the Mandavi and the creaks of the other rivers on the west coast,
4.The backwaters and lagoons in Kerala and
5.The Buckingham Canal between Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.



Our country has one of the largest networks of roads in the world.Roads are needed for talking people and goods from one place to another over short distances.

The most important roads in India are called national highways.They connect state capitals,big cities and towns,and the ports.They are built and maintained by the central government.There are also the state highways.State governments build and maintain these.There are also roads that connect villages with towns and cities.

Roads can be metalled or unmetalled.Most roads in towns and cities are metalled.they are made of stone,cement and tar.They are good for fast means of transport such as buses and cars.Unmetalled roads are found in villages.

To develop fast,a country should have good roads.They are also of great help in emergencies such as floods,famines and earthquakes.Goods can be transported fast and people can be rescued quickly.
Types of Roads in India;-

1.NationalHighways:-National Highways constitute the main fraamework of India's road system.They run through the length and breadth of the country.They connect state capitals,major ports,towns and cities of national importance.They carry nearly 40 percent of road traffic.They are managed by the Central Government.There are 30 National Highway routes in the country.Among them the National Highway-7 is the longest route with2325 Km distance.It runs from Varanasi to Kanyakumari.

2.State Highways:-State Highways connect every town in the state with its capital,neighbouring state capital,important cities and national highways.These are managed by the state Govenments.These account for 6.2 percent of the total road network in the country.Maharastra ranks first in state Highways.

3.District Roads:-District Roads are managed by Zilla Parishads.They connect the headquarters of the districts with other towns and big villages in the district.However,these roads lack required number of bridges and culverts.

4.Village Roads:-Villages Roads are managed by Mandal and village panchayats.They connect different villages with one another and also to the nearest district road or State Highways.However,these are mostlyunsurfaced and narrow tracks.

5.Border Roads:-Besides,the above,there are other roads called Border Roads.The Border Roads Development Board was established in the year 1960.Its aims are:
a) To provede communication in the sparsely populated northern and north-eastern regions of the country and
b)Thereby to speed up their socioeconomic development.
c)In all,12,878 Km of roads are being maintained by the Board.